author =   {Anders M. Johansson and Eric A. Lehmann},
  title =    {Evolutionary optimization of dynamics models in sequential Monte Carlo target tracking},
  journal =  {IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation},
  volume =   {13},
  number =   {4},
  pages =    {879--894},
  month =    {August},
  year =     {2009},
  abstract = {This paper describes a new method for the online parameter optimization of various models used to represent the target dynamics in particle filters. The optimization is performed with an evolutionary strategy algorithm, by using the performance of the particle filter as a basis for the objective function. Two different approaches to forming the objective function are presented: the first assumes knowledge of the true source position during the optimization, and the second uses the position estimates from the particle filter to form an estimate of the current ground-truth data. The new algorithm has low computational complexity and is suitable for real-time implementation. A simple and intuitive real-world application of acoustic source localization and tracking is used to highlight the performance of the algorithm. Results show that the algorithm converges to an optimum tracker for any type of dynamics model that is capable of representing the target dynamics.}